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Whatever there. But you know. MOV would be an example of a container, okay? So this is the codec, once you pick the codec, then you’ll have some choices in the next section.

So we’re gonna look at two of these now. We’re gonna look at H. And then as soon as I do H. But compress it to H. We had a question I think, I was talking about bitrate and bandwidth.

So when you’re streaming something off the web, whether it’s Netflix or something off of YouTube, you know depending on how fast your internet connection is, how sharp it’s going to be.

Whether it’s going to buffer and whether it’s going to be pixelated or not. Those are all things that we’ve all experienced from the viewers point of view. So a high bitrate is it’s trying to send more information down the pipe.

It’s a bigger file and it may be more challenging to say view that on an iPhone on cellular than it is to view on your high speed internet at home, okay? It’s gonna create a larger file too, so if you’re looking to send it to somebody, what it’s saying is, I’m going to cap out, and this is going to be jargon for some of you, at 12 megabits per second, okay? So if you don’t have that fast of a connection, there could be a problem.

And you may go to medium and say, I’m gonna cap out at six megabits per second. So it’s a smaller file, less demanding, but it’s not gonna be as sharp. So those are some things, and you might, when you’re putting out your show, export it both ways and see if you can see a difference. Depending on the complexity of your show, you may not need it. And something to keep in mind is, it’s really hard to compress complex imagery and lots of motion.

So if I’m just standing here, you can compress me to a smaller file. I fell like this is Willy Wonka right now. You can compress me to a smaller file. If I’m waving my hands like normally I do when I teach, there’s a lot of action that it has to compress, it won’t get to be a small of a file, and if you try to make it a small file by forcing it, my arms may get all, you know, artifact-y and break up as I wave them.

So these are some of kind of an overview of the challenges you have when deciding compression. These are the two that I jump to the most, the defaults. They’re easy, they work great. If you go down the list, you will see way too many variations of like, oh the Kindle, the Fire, the Android phone.

Guess what? A lot of these are the exact same configurations, but they put them all in because some people are very literal and they go, I need to send one out that my friend can watch on their Nook, okay? And you can pick it. And this may end up being exactly the same one as the Android one, but that way they don’t have to go and try to figure it out. So don’t be overwhelmed. Most of the time you’re going to use the first two.

But they try, and they update this with each version. If something’s getting more popular, you know, the Vimeo stuff, and they can tweak it. So if you know you’re going to Vimeo, make a Vimeo version. It follows the specs so when you upload it.

So these are very accessible, but don’t worry about these ones that you don’t understand. Why do I have to know them all, okay? That’s basically the rule of thumb. If I switch to QuickTime, just to show you as an example, and sometimes I master to QuickTime, that’s a different wrapper. I don’t have as many options. And you can go ahead and you can say, oh yeah, put it in a, see it says rewrap?

QuickTime is the container. And so I say, ah, rewrap, good. It’s giving me a lovely error, won’t let me do a rewrap.

So I can go ahead and I can do custom ones. We’ll leave it at DV for now, ’cause that’s gonna change. So you can go through and make all of these modifications to your video settings.

And I just want to clarify what some of them are, if you need to make a change. So I went up here and I said I’m going QuickTime, and I’m picking just one of these defaults that it will let me pick. I want to pick something generic. I’m gonna go ahead with, we’ll go with DV Widescreen.

So I can look down here and that says, oh look, that’s by My original is by I know I don’t want this. But I can go down and I can customize all of this again. Again it gets a little bit mentally confusing at first, but I can then pick what codec. And if you’re familiar with Apple, they have their own codecs for very high quality stuff, one is called ProRes, and it’s a very uncompressed formula or algorithm.

And I can go ahead and check that, and this would be something I might do for mastering. So as soon as I make that change, I can start making some other changes. My preset was , well I don’t want , I want So I change that, as soon as I change that, because there’s this little lock here, it switches to by And I don’t have to sit there and change everything, but I’m gonna go down here and you know, there’s lots of things you can make, it’s progressive.

The point I want to make here is once you make these changes if you know you’re gonna do this a lot, and probably you would make these changes if somebody came to you and said, “I have these specific settings “I need for my video that you’re giving me. That will happen from a web designer, that may happen from a broadcast facility. If you’re giving it to somebody to watch or putting it up on the web, I can almost guarantee you, you will use the H.

But I just wanted you to be aware of this stuff, hopefully not to confuse you too much. But you have all of this control here that we’re not gonna dig deep into, because you can spend two days on learning compression. So I’m gonna switch this back to what you’re probably gonna use, which is H. You can still modify things, okay? If I wanted to I could go ahead and say, I want to make it smaller.

I probably would’ve picked a preset, but if you uncheck this as match source, you can then make a modification to that. It’ll be grayed out until you uncheck it. But unless you know what you’re doing, don’t play with it. There’s that bitrate setting by the way, the 10 to 12 for high.

And then if I switched it to the medium, you’ll see that number of 10 to 12 change. So let’s go back up here. Oh I know what I’m not seeing it, because I zoomed in. If I go here to medium bitrate, scroll down. Video settings, you can see that that bitrate has dropped from 10 and 12 to 3 and 6. That’s a pretty big jump. So that’s maybe something like, oh, three and six is too low, but 10 and The reason why there are two numbers, one’s an average and one is like, I am not going to exceed that higher number, okay?

I’ve delivered things for Vimeo and they’ve said, oh you can push it to 20, because we’ll recompress it for the slower machines after that. Yes, there was a question? I noticed there are a number of YouTube options on the presets. Should we do or go to one of those if that’s what our goal is, to put it on YouTube?

Well will reveal all the YouTube ones. And I thank you for asking that, because I want to make sure that it’s clear, and I don’t think that I was. This is really where you’re going to go to , and then once you’re in there, then you see all of these options and you can pick it, and that’s where you see all of your YouTube options.

Generally what I would do is I would take the highest size and send that to YouTube, and they will create the smaller versions on their server automatically. If your original sequence is not 4K, don’t send them a 4K file, okay? So you don’t want to use it to up-res, but you don’t have to create a , a , and a You send them the highest quality, they create all the version.

And Vimeo is the same way, as well as Facebook and whatnot. So yes I showed you the other stuff but I’ll tell you, for everybody watching, for you in the room, you will probably choose H. So as long as you give them the highest quality, which this is pretty good, they will down convert it to what’s appropriate for their service. And if you go to any of these services, they’ll actually have a page of what are the specifications, the maximum specifications for what we’ll accept.

And they may go, you know, we’ll do high bitrate, and you know the default here is 10 and 12, but they may go ahead and say, you know something, we can take a maximum bitrate of 20, okay? And you may go ahead and change that to 20, and can even do another And you’ll get a much bigger file, it’ll be slower to upload.

But when they recompress it it’s gonna look better, okay? And those are changing all the time. In other words they’re getting– They’re allowing larger files and greater bandwidth that you’re using files because they can then convert them. So I made it actually sound a lot more complex than it should have been, but I know people will see all these choices and go, well what do I do with them?

The reality is, until you get knowledgeable, there’s no need to touch them, it’s beautiful he way it is. Can we tell which containers support the transparency for the alpha channel? So what containers support transparency? Let’s say I built a graphic that I want transparency.

The highly-compressed ones do not. So as a general rule, H. Usually I would put it inside of a QuickTime codec. So I would go to QuickTime, let me zoom in on that so we can see it. So that’s the wrapper, and then picking the codec is the tricky thing. So the codec I would actually use would be an animation codec, or ProRes four by four, which isn’t here at this point. Once again, to find that, we were in the source area and under effects control when you select a clip, you can now see and there it is.

Black and white. And the thing with this filter is it’s basically on or off. Okay, it’s black and white or it’s not black and white as opposed to something you can do degree of desaturation. So let me go over here and type in desaturate. No desaturation filters so we can’t work with that. And this is the challenge I have.

I probably have filters in my Premiere library and they’re great. So sometimes I’ll look for something, it won’t be there because it’s not native to the application. But there are others ways that we can work with that. So let’s go ahead. You can apply an effect. I want to apply something that I can do some modification to. And for instance, a blur filter. Maybe you wanted to do a blur to this. And I’m going to go ahead and pick the next clip. Gonna go up here, type in blur. A lot of different blurs.

The Gaussian blur is kind of your go-to blur, it’s one of the fastest ones for the computer to calculate. It’s what we’re used to. If you came from Photoshop or Lightroom, you’re probably familiar with a Gaussian blur or a gowsheen blur. If you have vision like me, everything might be a blur. So that’s why I want to use this filter. I put it on and isn’t that wonderfully blurred? It’s blurred to me, I can’t see that. When it goes on by default, it’s blur level is zero.

Zero amount of blurriness. So if I wanted to make this blurry, I would simply go up here and I could just use the slider, and automatically bring it to the amount of blur that I want. Why would I want to take my beautiful sharp photography and make it blurry, you ask. Well, maybe I’m running a title over it and I just kind of want this movement in the background, and then I want to bring it into focus.

There’s a lot of reasons that I may want to have a little bit of blur to something. Especially if I’m compositing or if I’m layering. So it has some nice things. Now I want to point out something that I really think was brilliant with the guys who designed this. When you make something really blurry And you might have done this in a video editing program, you might have done this in a photo editing program such as Photoshop.

Sometimes you get this blurry edge of black and that’s because what the software wants to do is blur the black outside of your image in with your image which isn’t necessarily what you want.

And they did a nice job here, they made a little button that says, “Repeat the edge pixels. So you can see it’s very easy to manipulate this. But I want something more, I want to create something more dynamic.

So I’m going to go ahead and I actually want to take this scene, and maybe have it go from black and white to color and from blurry to in focus. And I have to do a couple of tricks here because I’m working with a very limited filter.

You saw that black and white filter was either on or off, right? So let’s do that challenge first. I’m going to zoom in. I want to go to color. What if I cut this clip in half and took the filter off in the second half, and then did a dissolve? Think that might work? No, you don’t think that’ll work?

I hope it works. This’ll be great if it doesn’t work, I’ll just be To do that, I’m could do the razor blade which I taught you about, the cut C, or the keyboard shortcut command K, the German cut.

So I cut this in half. I’m going to go over here and the filter’s still on both sides. And I can if I want to just deactivate it, hit the FX button. The filter is there but it’s turned off. You can kind of see it on the edge there. Color should come back in. If I wanted deleted completely, I could just select it and hit delete. So now I’m in a situation where we’re going from black and white, color on the move, and I change my default transition.

I’m not going to get caught in this. And I also made it six frames long so I’m not going to get caught on that. Let me fix those preferences from the previous lesson.

Okay, preference, general, make this 30 frames. Go down here under dissolve. We don’t want to dip to white, cross dissolve. Right click as we learn, select that as my default, transition. Cross my fingers, shift D, spread it out a little bit longer.

Luckily, it worked. So this is a case where I kind of faked it. It’s a great way. And I love doing this, being able to go from black and white to color. And sometimes I’ll do it really, really like a long dissolve so they don’t even notice. And suddenly it’s like, “Wait a second?

It’s going to hurt me on my next thing though because I want to do this blurry thing, right? Again, it’s going to create a problem. I like creating problems for myself. Well, I don’t know if I like it but I’m very good at it.

I’m going to show you how to create the blur move and then you’ll see where it breaks. So we’re going to go to this next clip here which is a fairly long clip. Nice underwater stuff.

We made it blurry before. As a matter of fact, our Gaussian blur is still there set to zero. We learned in the audio lesson about key framing.

We’re going to key frame here also. We want the blur to change over time. And I know I can key frame something because I see these little stop watches that I saw with the audio that says “Yes, you can key frame something. So I want this to start off fuzzy and then I want it to go to clear. I’ll probably pick where I want the clear to be. I’m working backwards so you don’t have to but it’s easier to work backwards. And I’m going to simply hit that stopwatch and you’ll see as soon as I do that, it has created a little diamond here which is a key frame and has locked in this parameter at this moment in time, okay?

Keep that in mind, it’s a time parameter key frame. So I’m going to go now back in time and I can do that either in my effects panel or in the sequence. You’re assuming that you’re not going to go back and say oh, I want a different take or I wanted another shot. You can always go back to your camera original that you archived, of course, that SD card that you put in a very safe place when you made the copy of the folder because you never throw anything away.

But if you want to save some space, and sometimes I will do that, especially if I brought in a lot of stuff. A documentary, you might have a to one shooting ratio and you want to make maybe even just a version, you know, that it’s like, I can put here and I just know this is my final show. You can say exclude unused clips, okay? There are a couple of these that are unavailable for me to check and I’ll explain why as soon as I go through the existing ones.

I generally do not check these, include audio conform files, include preview files. What those are your render files and the analysis files of when it looks and defines the way for them. The nice thing is, when I open up a project, it will recreate those as needed, so why save or use that extra space? The only time I may say save this is because I want to move it to another drive.

I’m still working on the project and I don’t want to wait for it to actually recreate my render files if I need them or recreate the audio WAV form files. So if I’m still working on a project, I may check those and have it save it, but if I’m just putting it on the shelf, it’s like I can regenerate that as needed while I use the space, okay?

You do have an option, when you archive, is if you change the name of a clip within the application, so if you clicked on any of these clips in you browser as you’re working on it. I could actually, if you notice, some of these have different names than probably they were recorded when I shot them.

The camera gave it a certain number. So if you rename a clip, you have the option when it media manages it to change the name of that clip to whatever you chose it to be while you were editing, which is kind of nice because now when you just look at the move clips, it actually has the right name and Premiere knows the new name to connect it to on this new project file it’s going to make.

So it is a nice feature to rename it. So again, depending on your workflow, that’s one of your options. Before we look at all these other elements, you need to choose where you want it to go. So you’re going to say browse. What’s the destination? Create a folder to put it in. It creates a folder anyway. I like the redundancy in case I forget something and it’s going to put all of this into a single location that you target, whether that’s another place internally on your computer or hard drives or maybe on an external hard drive where you’re going to archive it.

I generally archive, as a rule of thumb, to an external hard drive and I’ll explain why in a few minutes. That’s my check thing. So here we go. Disk space available. Do I have enough room? It does not know the size of the final project until I hit the button calculate and it will make its best guess that my original project was 33 gigabytes. The new one will be 16 because I’m ignoring all my unused media, okay?

But until you hit calculate, it won’t figure that out. And then if I’m happy with that, I can say okay. It starts copying, and moving, and organizing, and it will create a brand new project with new sequences and move a copy of all the media into a single folder and you’re good to go, okay?

And when I say that I like to put this on external hard drive, as a rule of thumb, computers aren’t perfect. We are, but computers aren’t perfect. So what I like to do is, once I’ve archived it, I take that drive and plug it into a different machine and open up the project and make sure everything is there and is reconnected because sometimes you may have something very deep into like, a nest, or maybe you have an After Effects or a Photoshop document that doesn’t have the information embedded, but it’s pointing to the media on another part of the drive and Premiere is not aware of that, so it’s nice to know if something’s offline and if you just put it in the original machine, Premiere sometimes knows where it looked before, so it sees it still and now, a month later, you plug it in and you’ve deleted everything off your internal drive and suddenly, that media is gone, ever to be found again.

So it’s a good check and balances if you have a second system. Of course, if you don’t have a second system, it’s a little harder, but I do like that as a workflow to always check the moment I archive the file. So let’s look at some of the other options that you can use and also how it thinks and how it works. So if you check consolidate and transcode, some of these other options are now accessible.

So first of all, we talked about transcoding earlier. That’s basically converting from one flavor of media to another. So sometimes when you archive, you want to turn everything into a common flavor or maybe you want to convert it into something that is a smaller file.

Maybe everything you shot is ProRes and you want to just archive like, H. So as soon as you say consolidate and transcode, you now get to choose what format you want to convert it to and these are archival formats. You’ll also notice that as going back to format, remember, I remember your question earlier. It’s like, why don’t I say H. Because in this case, you’ll see H. And by the way, you’ll probably use QuickTime. These, again, are more broadcast formats that you would deal with, so I want to convert it to QuickTime and then I have these different flavors.

We’re going to do ProRes. If you build a preset in Media Encoder, you can, but usually the idea is with transcoding it, you’re doing it for a reason such as you want it all to be the same flavor and easy to work with and that’s why ProRes is one of the common formats.

At this point, I can actually do something kind of interesting here. I can say include handles and where people get kind of get a little bit surprised is that it only works for some of the media. And this changes over time, so who knows?

In six months, they’ll release something new and they may change this, but a lot of times, stuff that’s recorded at H. And part of the reason for that is it is so compressed that it actually references information that is further down our earlier in the video clip because literally what it is doing, it is using something called long GOP structure. I say that because it’s the end of another day of live and you’re like, wow, what is this?

And I like saying the word GOP. GOP stands for group of pictures. Well, JPEG just throws away superfluous information that our eye cannot necessarily see, even though technically, it is throwing away really useful information. They do the same thing with video. Now that they do to be clever is they say you know what? What if things don’t really change between frame one and frame two, and frame three?

Why don’t we just not repeat that information, we just look back at the earlier frame? So if, say, you’re recording me and it’s all RAW. You record every single pixel of this room and the wall. When you get to JPEG, you take a picture that says you know something? There are 35 blue dots over here. I’ll just do 35 times blue at this luminance level and then we can to mumbles , it’s a different color. So I can make a smaller file.

And then, when you start getting into that lossy JPEG, they say you know something? There’s 40 light blues and 35 semi-light blue, so well just do 75 semi-light blues. The guy won’t notice. And now you get an even smaller file. So you see, you’re throwing away information that we won’t say, well, they do the same thing with video, but because video is over time and you’ll hear the term temporal just to be, again, fancy, they can say you know something?

I was standing here talking. That wall is not changing from frame one, frame two, frame three, so let’s only record what changes between each frame and we can make this file even smaller.

And so what they do is they can’t do that so long because if you’ve ever played a game of telephone in elementary school or sometimes maybe in a restaurant, I go to the first person. I give you a sentence and you whisper it into the ear of everybody and by the time it gets to the back of the room, it’s a completely different sentence.

So the same thing would happen with the compression of video. So what they do is like, every 15th person, they tell them the original sentence again. They tell them the original sentence again. They look a the full frame of information to make sure that it actually looks right. So that’s called GOP.

 
 

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